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November 20, 2019

Addiction to Emailing and Texting


The growing trends of use of information technologies are introducing dysfunctional behaviors. Indeed, an addiction to mailing and texting has the potential to destroy business relationships, individual�??s psychological well-being and the families. This paper claims that the statement is true by providing supporting arguments in favor of the thesis statement.
Impact on business relationships
When a person is addicted to emailing and texting, there is the possibility that business relationships can be destroyed. Problems in professional relationship occur in case the employee uses the email and text message services to communicate with the people, who are not workmates, and thus does not concentrate on the workplace activities. When the company�??s management discovers that the person is involved in non-work-related activity, the issues arise. Firstly, management may assume that the employee is not loyal to the organization. Secondly, the managers may lose trust that the person can deliver results on his/her duties. As a reaction to extensive use of technology for private reasons, the management may restrict the person from accessing email services or abolish the use of mobile phones at work. The restrictions result in employee dissatisfaction, and he or she can become disloyal and uncooperative with the company.
Another example of destruction of business relationship is when the person uses the work email to send job applications to other companies while being employed. The management of the company where he/she is working can observe this as a demonstration of uncooperativeness and unwillingness to continue employment with the company. In addition, an employee can be labeled as the one to expose business secrets to outsiders or even make a conspiracy to steal from the company. Thus, there may be various restrictions such as non-use of emails and text messaging while at work. In certain situations when the employee persists in the habit of technology use for personal reasons after caution from management, the leaders will treat this behavior as disloyalty and disrespect to the organizational regulations. As an outcome of the conflict situation the person may be laid off.
The addiction to text messaging during work hours can also contribute to the inability to concentrate on the job tasks. The employees can focus on personal issues such as communication with friends instead of performing job duties. The inability to fulfill the assigned duties result into disruption of the company�??s activities, and the management will have to take corrective measures for the behavior. Moreover, the employee will lose his/her respect in the organization and have reputation of immature not trustworthy person. The conflict may also have an impact on the relationship with the top management, who can prevent an employee from benefits at work such as salary increment, allowances or job promotion.
Psychological impacts
There are various ways in which addiction to email and texting can impact psychology of a person. Consider a person, who uses email to find the job opportunities and apply for the positions. In the process of job hunting, his or her psychological well-being may be affected because a person is dependent on email as the main source of employment opportunities. Moreover, the individual may be disappointed when most applications did not yield positive feedback. An applicant may experience serious disappointment or even feel despair. The trauma caused by the e-mail dependency may result into a feeling of trying to punish that addiction. As a result the person may be involved in some self-destructive activities or even attempt suicide.
In another situation, a person may rely on the use of text messaging as a means of communication with friends and colleagues. Thus, the person may feel insecure and unsafe when the mobile device is not available or when he or she cannot text. The insecurity is based on the person�??s perception that the device is his closest companion. A person may feel lonely when the device is not available, which leads to the negative feelings such as discontent, isolation and loneliness.
The use of mobile texting and email may also be seen by some people as an image of being more advanced and modernized. Thus, a person may opt to use technological communication in order to be a modern person, who is on track with modern communication methods. E-mails and texting may look like high literacy, fashion a symbol of young lifestyle. Thus, a person may become addicted to the use of email services and mobile texting, so that he can get the respect from friends and community. However, addiction to email and mobile texting can result into psychological issues. For example, when these devices are not available or when the person is in remote areas he or she can face challenges with other forms of communication. The person with technological addicted may feel lonely and out of fashion when he does not access these services.
Impact on Families
Addiction to email and mobile texting can have great negative impacts on families. An example of serious dependency on technology for communication is couples, who communicate with their friends and relatives through mobiles and e-mails. The couples can they lose touch with each other; and when they are in the house, they cannot communicate their desires, interests and needs to each other. As a result, family problems can arise, which are based on communication issues and are related to home management or the responsibility for the children.
In another case, a person may tend to use emails and mobile texting as a method of getting in touch with family members who stay far away. Consequently, he or she may see that there is no reason for either visiting or inviting them to his/her place. Thus, there may be an impact on family ties, and the person may lose touch with other relatives and family members, who are far away.
Furthermore, the relationship of the couple can be seriously affected by the technology. For example, the married couple may depend on these devices to the extent where they go to bed, but still use text messaging to communicate with friends and colleagues. Thus, it is impossible to maintain intimate relationship with each other. The problems in the bedroom result into the lack of emotional ties between husbands and wives. Lastly, the possibility separation and divorces of the families becomes high because of the technology addiction.
Lastly, the use of text messages and email can lead to the exposure of family secrets and sensitive private information to other people. For instance, a husband may text his friend about insufficient financial funds and asks for a loan. When his wife discovers these messages, she may feel offended because the man decided to solve the problems with the friends rather than communicate with the wife. Thus, there may be quarrels and disagreements in the family. In other cases, people in a marriage may use emails and text messaging as a method of explaining the differences between each other and discuss domestic problems with friends. Thus, other people know the secrets of the family and the family may be viewed negatively by friends and the extended family.
Another situation where the addiction to emails and text messaging may result into negative impact on a family is when a person communicates matters of relationship outside marriage through technology. For instance, a person may use email or text messaging as a method of communicating to a colleague of opposite sex at work. However, if this interaction extends at home, it causes marital problems, fights and disagreements.
Lastly, in certain circumstances, one spouse can access to another person�??s email if left open or read love messages from the colleague. This discovery results in fights, dishonesty and less commitment to the needs of the family. Consequently, the spouse may take measures that are not favorable to the family, such as the decision to file for a divorce as a result of unfaithfulness. Thus, the family may experience unrest as a result of addiction of the man to emails and text messaging.

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July 23, 2019

Legitimate Help with dissertation formatting services


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Tags: education
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May 31, 2019

Food and Culture


Today, the diet of the USA population is a combination of numerous cultures and cuisines. Currently, Mexican Americans, Asian Indians, and African Americans are among the most widely spread and numerous ethnic groups of the US society, defining American nutrition. African Americans make over 15 percent of the total population of the USA. African Americans have their traditional nutrition habits, which are mostly different from the typical American diet. Nutrition traditions are best understood through the prism of the cultural context. Simultaneously, a better understanding of African American nutritional habits may provide avoidance of ethnocentric assumptions. In this regard, traditional nutritional habits of numerous minority groups of the USA, their common food habits, and interaction between the chosen cultures have to be examined in detail.
Traditional Food Habits
The nutrition habits of modern African Americans are based on certain health beliefs traced from generation to generation since their early settlement on the territory of the USA. Traditional African American food, which is also called "soul food", has been developed on the basis of numerous practices and traditions. Core commodities of the African American diet are represented by cornmeal, pork, and molasses, along with wheat flour and lard. Representatives of this ethnic group use flour for baking their traditional biscuits. However, flour has become cheap enough for regular purchases just recently. The most popular type of pork is commercially packed bacon, but a fat one.
Some families prefer to cook simple meals. For example, they slice a bacon or salt pork thin and cook it in fireplaces. Mixing bacon grease with molasses, they make a so-called "sap", which is eaten with meat and cornbread. Cornbread is made of cornmeal and water and baked on a griddle. In most cases, African Americans bake bread and fry meat. The preference for meat frying is usually given due to a short time of cooking; in summer, this feature is rather practical. Sometimes, in winter or late autumn, African Americans eat sweet potatoes and pork. Some families cook an opossum dinner. The carcass is seasoned with red pepper and baked with sweet potatoes in a pot. People of this ethnic group prepare crackling bread by frying it till a brittle condition. Then, they mix it with water, cornmeal, salt, and soda and bake it all. Oftentimes, African Americans eat turnips or cabbage boiled with pork fat.
Talking about spices, it should be mentioned that most African American dishes are heavily seasoned and salted. Members of the African American community widely use chilies and hot peppers, along with garlic, curry, cumin, coriander, cinnamon, ginger, and sesame seeds. Seasonings made of ground seeds (for example, cotton and melon) and dried mushrooms are also rather common in the African American food. In the African-American community, breakfast meals are commonly light and lunch is usually represented by fast food. The dinner meal usually consists of one or several traditional dishes. Studies have shown that African Americans have from four to five meals per day with the largest one in the afternoon.
African Americans brought to the USA some foods, which are associated with superstitions. For example, the African diaspora brought black-eyed pea to the New World. Until today, a celebration of the New Year without black-eyed peas is deemed inferior and at least not lucky. Dried black-eyed peas have two physical properties, which symbolize good things: a significant increase in size when cooked and the guarantee of germination when planted. For historical reasons, eating black-eyed peas ensures good fortune, as stated in the Jewish Talmud.
Besides their beliefs into the good fortune of some products, modern rural African Americans also believe that some foods are capable of healing various illnesses. For example, in order to treat diabetes, they consume such dietary products as vinegar, lemon juice, teas made of roots and leaves, and herbal supplements from healthy food shops. Vinegar and lemon juice, for instance, are applied in order to reduce the level of sugar in the blood. Besides, many other natural remedies are used by African Americans for the treatment of numerous diseases. In order to treat the urinary tract infection, bearberry is used. Rheumatism, menstrual pain, and discomfort are eliminated by means of black cohosh or black snakeroot, while blue cohosh is appropriate for uterine contractions during work. At seizures, it is advised to use wild comfrey in the African American community and chamomile is used for poison ivy treatment and sleep aid. Sweet potato provides nausea relief during pregnancy.
Being an ancient ethnic group, African Americans have their own feasts and holidays, for which peculiar celebratory dishes are characteristic. For example, dishes containing peanuts, seeds, collard greens, sweet potatoes, and spicy sauces are traditionally cooked for Kwanzaa, one of the major non-religious holidays intended to honor African culture and inspire African Americans, whose labor has made a great contribution to the progress of the USA. In addition, the celebratory table also contains vegetables, fruits, and nuts symbolizing the harvest, which nourished the African people. African Americans also cook appetizers from black-eyed peas, peanut soup, fruit salads, and coconut pie and drink green tea with mint or ginger beer.
Undoubtedly, understanding of the interconnection between religion and food can help better understand the African American community, especially taking into account the fact that African Americans are very religious Christians and Catholics. Scientists mark that Christian faith makes significant transformations in their diet habits of the African American community. For example, eating crackers is an important part of Christianity because they are transformed into Christ's body. The Christmas Day breakfast usually contains such traditional for this ethnic minority dishes as eggs, ham, biscuits with butter and syrup, grits, and sausages. Other core dishes served for religious holidays usually include baked ham, green vegetables, candied yams, baked macaroni, baked chicken, cornbread, rice, and fruitcakes or apple pies for a dessert.
Adaptation of African American Diet to the USA
Several studies have shown that in the African American community the process of acculturation to the USA culture plays a crucial role in shaping their attitudes, cultural behavior, and, undoubtedly, dietary habits. Scientists have noticed that acculturation to the American culture is associated with unhealthy diet behaviors among African Americans. Acculturation to the American culture has led to shifts from traditional healthy foods containing whole grains, meats, and vegetables to more sugary, processed, and high-fat foods, which are currently rather popular and widely spread in the U.S. community.
Acculturation to the U.S. dietary style was not a difficult process for a long time. From the beginning, acculturation was inhibited by the elderly generation of African Americans who honored and highly valued their native traditions. However, new generations of the African American community strove to adapt to the cultural environment they were born and lived in. As a result, African Americans' acculturation to the U.S. dietary habits supposed partial or total acceptance of foods classified as "American". Thus, eating fast-food, for example, pizza or hamburgers and frequent ignorance of traditional long-cooked dishes, has become a consequence of these ethnic minority members becoming American and assimilating to their peers.
Experts argue that the dietary habits of African Americans are likely to take a turn for the worse due to the increase of the African Americans' length of residency on the territory of the USA. Eventually, African American ethnic minority groups will assimilate with the U.S. culture because with the course of time they obtain a broader variety of food options, thus becoming more likely to eat both healthy and unhealthy native and American foods. Moreover, African Americans have obtained more opportunities to expand their traditional menu and try exotic foods, which were unavailable for them in their motherland. Nonetheless, African Americans are likely to change their dietary behavior if they are limited in access to ingredients required for cooking their national dishes. As a result, they will slowly assimilate to the American unhealthy diet, straying away from homemade meals.
Food and Health Relations
The preference for a certain type of diet, a so-called "soul food", has caused numerous health problems among African Americans. Soul food usually includes a lot of fatty meats, sugar, and fried foods served with rich gravies, regular consumption of which leads to high rates of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and obesity. In comparison to the white American population, the African American ethnic group is characterized by higher incidences of hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, and cancer. High incidences of cancer among African Americans are caused by low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Thus, obtaining lower amounts of vitamins, magnesium, and calcium and consuming a great number of calories from the saturated fat, members of this community have the highest rates of obesity in the USA. Moreover, some studies have shown that African American men experience the most frequent incidences of hypertension and prostate cancer in the world.
Like any other diet, soul food has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, this type of food is rich for nutrients since it contains leafy yellow and green vegetables (collard greens, for instance), potatoes, legumes, rice, and beans. In most cases, many products required for cooking traditional African American dishes are cheap enough in the USA and, thus, available to African Americans with different levels of income. Having brought many local products with them during slavery times from Africa to the USA, African Americans have contributed to the expansion of the U.S. food market supply. On the contrary, soul food is poor in fiber, potassium, calcium and has a high level of fat. High levels of fat and cholesterol cause numerous diseases, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart attacks, etc. Moreover, not all ingredients necessary for this diet are easily accessible on the territory of the USA or in particular states. Experts recommend to boil or bake some products instead of frying in order to decrease the fat amount. Focusing on fruit can help to enrich an organism with fiber and necessary vitamins, hence saving human health. Moreover, some heavily available ingredients can be replaced with other products with lower prices that are healthier and easily accessible.

Taking into account the above-mentioned information, it should be noted that the African American diet represents a combination of numerous cultural influences. As a result of stable acculturation, soul food has turned from healthy dishes for early slaves to an unhealthy diet for modern African Americans. African American foods contain a lot of fat and are mainly cooked by means of frying, resulting in numerous diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, heart attacks, etc. Nonetheless, some products are widely used for the treatment of numerous diseases. African Americans have many dishes associated with religion, superstitions, and traditional celebrations. Thus, soul food is a cultural heritage of the people who have saved its traditions until today despite a strong influence of the U.S. community.

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December 5, 2011

Pay Attention! The Relationship Between Memory and Attention


Memory and attention are not always seen as being related, however Johnson and Chun's article, the connections between the two of these processes are looked at in detail. This article would be considered a meta-analysis of several studies on the topic of memory and the different attention states themselves. Both perceptual and reflective attention was studied and reported, showing interesting results about how the brain categorizes and retrieves memories in relation to these types of attention. The majority of the studies that were focused on within the article had been arranged and performed by the authors of the article, giving an interesting perspective.

Neuroimaging was used to determine the areas of the brain most activated by certain stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was the technique most referred to in this article; fMRI's are used to visualize the neural activity based on the hemodynamic response of glucose release within the brain. With this technique, it was seen that similar areas of the brain are activated when a stimulus is first observed (what the article refers to as perception) and when the same stimulus is being recalled (referred to as reflection). For instance, a cue for a visual memory will cause a higher activity level in the visual cortex in the same way that the visual cortex was originally stimulated when the cue was first observed. Similar responses are seen in both short term and long term memory recollection.

It has also been observed that certain activities that relate to either perceptual attention, like repetition attenuation, or reflective attention, like reactivating and retrieving, activate areas that are generally similar to the areas activated during the experience of remembering. Beyond the areas originally involved, there are other areas involved in the processes of memory and attention. These areas include frontal and parietal areas such as the hippocampus, the anterior cingulate cortex, and other various areas of the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain. The article demonstrates that refreshing perceptual events, using both types of memory also shows similarity in both activity levels and in the sections that are activated. The studies have shown that there can be severe interference if a participant is told to recall multiple objects or situations that were encoded with similar attention states and that are located in similar areas.

This article could have improved if it had looked at multiple sources of stimulus rather than just visual stimulants, as there could be vastly different results from memories of different senses. Furthermore, reviewing their own experimental studies could give rise to a bias in the analysis of the studies. However, this article did bring up some important ideas.

The conclusions drawn from this article could lead to many other topics of research that could help in the understanding of how the ways of memory, attention, and how they are able to work together. Further knowledge of these relationships could provide information on how to improve educational systems and could promote more effective ways of learning.




Chun, M. M., Johnson, M. K. (2011). Memory: Enduring traces of perceptual and reflective attention. Neuron, 72(4), 520-535. Retrieved from http://download.cell.com/neuron/pdf/PIIS0896627311009615.pdf?intermediate=true
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December 4, 2011

Practice makes perfect- Training your brain for music


Were you ever forced to learn an instrument as a young child? Did you ever hear the dreadful words "have you practiced today" or did you have to have your parents sign papers indicating that you did indeed practice 1hr of flute each day, so that you may receive an A in music class. Or were you one of the fortunate children who actually enjoyed playing an instrument?
The common notion is that practicing music has beneficial effects. In addition we often say that musicians are wired differently, that they approach problems differently. But what does that mean in the neuroanatomical sense?
A study by Christian Gaser and Gottfried Schlaug compared brain regions of musicians and non-musicians with the voxel-by-voxel morphometirc technique to try and uncover anatomical differences amongst the two groups' brain structures.
Their approach was to say that musicians learn certain motor and auditory skills in their musical practice, and that such learning would evoke some difference in the brains of adult musicians compared to non-musicians. Their results provided grounds that there was indeed a difference in brain anatomy between the test subjects, a volumetric difference in the gray matter. Musicians had a larger gray matter in the motor, auditory and spatial-visual areas of the brain than non-musicians. However the researchers were unable to determine whether or not this difference was predisposed or acquired. The researchers suggest that the difference in gray matter volume is induced through practice rather than being predisposed, however they were unable to prove their hypothesis since their experiment did not specifically focus on the issue.
Several years later one of the researchers, Gottfried Schlaug, teamed up with several other researchers to focus on the brain development of young musicians. This experiment measured the regional brain plasticity of young children. One group received musical training for 15 months while the other didn't. Their results indicated that children with musical training did indeed have a greater voxel size expansion meaning it diverged from the typical brain development.
Even though the results indicated that musical training does result in increasing gray matter of certain anatomical regions in the brain, the researchers could not completely rule out the idea of a genetic predisposition. Meaning the question whether nature or nurture is responsible for the volumetric difference, still stands. Do we have to be born a musician or can we learn to be one. Either way, both papers seem to indicate that there are beneficial factors to learning an instrument at a young age. So for those of us who were forced to learn an instrument, it indicates that no harm was done at least not in the conventional sense. A fear from pianos (pianophobia)_or other instruments (instrumentophobia) due to horrid enslaving teachers is a different story, one that would take us more into the direction of psychology. But if your parents are still disappointed that you didn't turn out to be a great musician, just indicate that nature might still have a role and that maybe you just weren't meant to be the next Beethoven.



Original Sources:
Gaser, C., Schlaug, G; (2003). Brain Structures Differ Between Musicians and Non-Musicians. The Journal of Neuroscience. 23.27.

Hyde, K. L., Lerch, J., Norton, A., Forgeard, M., Winner, E., Evans, A. C., Schlaug, G., (2009). Musical Training Shapes Structural Brain development. The Journal of neuroscience. 29, 10.
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December 2, 2011

Online NRSC 2100- Is it a Good Idea?


Over the last semester we have all participated in a class with a very different learning format from that which we are used to. Whether we signed up for an online class or not, almost all of the educational content of this class has been presented online. Independent, online learning, presents a very different learning experience than the traditional university course. Rather than seeing and hearing a professor lecture and discussing our learning in a social, classroom setting we have obtained most of our information through online textbooks, tutorials and videos and have discussed it using Facebook, Hootcourse and this blog. The question is: Is this new form of education that does not revolve around the face-to-face social experience between a teacher and a classroom bring the same benefits? Is social interaction important for learning? Do the social capabilities of the internet (i.e. Facebook) sufficiently replace in-person communication?
In her article, "The Developing Social Brain: Implications for Education, (http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(10)00173-X )" Sarah-Jayne Blakemore explores the research that has been done on the role of social interaction in learning. Humans have a social brain; we are capable of intuitively knowing what certain facial expressions and body language mean. Babies developing language skills depend on social interaction for learning. Blakemore highlights a study (Kuhl et al., 2003 ) in which American babies are exposed to Chinese Mandarin through three different methods: 1) social interaction (reading and playing) with a native speaker, 2) videos of that same speaker or 3) audio recording of that same speaker. The only group that displayed the learned ability to distinguish between Chinese sounds was the group that experienced social interaction. The benefits of social interaction in learning are not yet understood. It could be that the infants are more motivated by social interaction or that the adult speaker is able to tailor their behavior to the child's needs in a social experience.
This doesn't necessarily point to the absolute necessity of social interaction for academic learning; language acquisition is different from the type of learning done in a university classroom and the age of the participants and their brain development is significantly different from that of the typical student enrolled in this class. Blakemore explores one of these issues by examining the difference in brain activity in adults and adolescents. The brain undergoes significant changes in Medial Prefrontal Activation during adolescence. This area is active in social cognition tasks. Research suggests that the development of social learning skills is still taking place late into adolescence and that continuing to learn and have real-life social interactions during this period is crucial for the development of the brain.
She concludes her exploration with more questions and an analysis of implications of this research for education. It is clear that some types of learning do require social interaction and that this is true even into late adolescence (and perhaps beyond?). For now, the question as to whether classes such as this one are as educationally valuable for the human brain is waiting on more research . For now, we get to be the judges of that.
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October 23, 2011

Technology: Virtue or Vice to Our Brains?


It is undeniable that our daily lives are inundated with technology. Our society and this world work hand in hand with technology on a close, almost dependent level. It is only in the last few decades that we have become so co oriented with technology, and it is becoming a more pressing issue than ever that we question the effects of this change. As humans, who we are is shaped by our experiences, and knowing and acknowledging this fact means we have to question both the pros and cons of such a new and close relationship with technology. When looking at this relationship it is not a question of whether or not humans are being affected by technology but how technology is affecting us.

Technology includes a multitude of different things and cannot be considered one single entity. Because it is so multidimensional it is not necessarily a good or a bad thing; a greater breakdown is necessary to determine potentially harmful technology from proven positive facets of technology. It is verified that technology as a whole has the ability to manipulate mood and arousal. It has also been proven that attention, and vision and motor skills can be enhanced while using technology. These improvements are highly dependent based on the type of technology being used and whether or not there is active or passive interaction.

Television has been around for more than sixty years but it's relevance to everyday lives and learning has never been so great. There are learning benefits to technology but three reoccurring traits have surfaced in accordance with being wired. Studies have shown that people are more likely to be violent, exhibit addictive behavior, and get distracted easier. Once again the context of the technology must be taken in to consideration. Influences of technology are starting at earlier and earlier ages these days. In children the television show Telletubbies, research showed a decrease in language proficiency in children who watched this show. However, there was a language proficiency increase seen in children who watched Dora the Explorer.

These numerous concerns and detrimental findings in research also have a flip side. New research shows indications that playing video games is associated with a number of improvements in attention, cognition, vision, and motor control. Playing video games heightens ability to pinpoint small details in chaotic scenes. Playing video games and improving these skills has shown to help people in careers such as pilots or surgeons.
Part of making technology more beneficial than detrimental is learning how to use it and how to allow it to challenge and improve our brains as opposed to letting it become a route to mindlessness. We are seeing that the attractive features of video games such as emotional context, arousing experiences, and richly structured scenarios are what boost our intellectual brain and educational technology tends to exploit the repetitive nature of practice makes perfect. Making moves to shift educational technology toward the more interactive nature of technology could only improve our relationship with technology. It is difficult to study the ways that technology affects the human brain but considering the growing reliability and interaction humans have with it, research in this field is both necessary and critical to society.

Full article can be found at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627310006781
Posted by      Bethany B. at 9:41 PM MDT
  Joseph Crawford  says:
The post explores technology: virtue or vice to our brains. The article mentions that it is confirmed that technology as a whole has the capability to influence mood and arousal. It has also been verified that concentration, and vision and motor skills can be improved while using technology.

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Posted on Thu, 2 May 2019 5:29 AM MDT by Joseph C.

Internet Media Educates us as Traditional Media Never Has


At this point in time there is a staggeringly vast amount of knowledge available to people through the internet. There is now so much knowledge available that this particular time period has earned the moniker ??the information age?? and is considered distinct and special due the widespread availability of this knowledge. For informal and underground fields of study or interest this is a great boon. For the first time in history these fields of study are given a set up where the few and far between collaborators can easily communicate, cooperate and disseminate their results to the interested amateur. In technical fields with a high barrier to understanding such as biology and neuroscience, the ease of passing on information through the internet is cutting out middleman news distributors and producing sources of intelligible information produced by people who are experts in their fields.

Traditionally much of the public has gotten its science information from newspapers, magazines and television news programs. These sources, run by journalist who study and focus on distributing information to the public are excellent at catching the public eye and producing results that the public finds interesting. However, journalists often lack significant scientific backgrounds or training, and therefore are not always qualified to interpret the science they are publicizing. The result has been that historically the public has often been fed simplifications of scientific matters, or occasionally misinformed entirely.

Now that scientists have gained access to the internet for distributing information, the public has new and more expert venues for learning about whatever science interests them. Blogs written by scientists are available for most scientific topics, while social media sites often have sub sections dedicated to the discussion of news within various sciences. Surprisingly, despite the amateur nature of many of the content contributors, the content is often just as readable as what can be found in traditional sources such as newspapers and magazines. It is however more expert, increasing the quality of the information available to the public.

Another aspect that internet media brings to the table which has never previously been available is an element of interactivity between content creators and content consumers. The brilliance of social media lies in the fact that users can request clarification or increased depth directly from the producers of content. There are even sites which focus on increasing public knowledge by creating a forum between laymen and scientists on scientific topics. The website reddit.com has a subsection for this called askscience (www.reddit.com/r/askscience), which has over the past month discussed scientific questions varying from the whether IQ differences can be estimated through brain imaging to how big stars can get.

Traditional media outlets will continue to be an important purveyor of scientific conclusions by summarizing large issues in science and reaching the general public at large. However any laymen interested in scientific knowledge, internet media is providing opportunities never before seen from the traditional side of science journalism. With its potential for in depth expert analysis and discussion between scientists and the curious, the internet has greatly improved the quality and availability of scientific knowledge.
Posted by      Michael A. at 5:33 PM MDT
  Michael Asnes  says:
I case anyone was curious, here are the links to the science questions I mentioned:

IQ differences and brain imaging: http://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/lkkgb/is_iq_difference_detectable_with_mri_or_eeg_in/

How big stars can get: http://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/lefvj/what_is_the_maximum_theoretical_size_that_a_star/
Posted on Sun, 23 Oct 2011 5:35 PM MDT by Michael A.
  Christina Uhlir  says:
Blogs are excellent up to a point. Think about people who can post blogs and about the editing processes involved in the vast majority of the blogs that are published (nonexistent). Not to mention the fact that a blog is not copyrighted, which will deter the more professional bloggers who do not want to become victims of intellectual property theft. Blogs are interesting and informative, but read a blog post with more than a grain of salt and check for sources. Please don't let me steamroll over this though, if you disagree please reply.
Posted on Mon, 24 Oct 2011 6:29 PM MDT by Christina U.

October 20, 2011

Neuro-education... the Key to Education Reform?


Any American who has attended a public school has likely walked out of a classroom having no idea what that boring, Charlie Brown-esque (Blah, Blah, Blah, Blah, Blah), lecture they just listened to was about. But, just as many people likely have stories of those one or two miraculous teachers who inspired them to learn and to think in new, innovative and creative ways. What is it that makes some lessons incredibly ineffective and others amazingly stimulating?
The emerging field of Neuro-education is hoping to find the answer to this question and many others concerning the most effective ways to teach the world's kids. Neuroscientists and educators are working in collaboration to blend findings in both fields to better understand how humans learn in order to develop more effective educational methods and policies. New programs are opening up in the U.S., and throughout the world, that are hoping to develop connections between disciplines in order to create a better educational system for our kids. One such organization, the International, Mind, Brain and Education Society states its mission, to facilitate cross-cultural collaboration in biology, education and the cognitive and developmental sciences in order to bring science and practice together.(http://www.imbes.org/) Many graduate programs at universities ranging from Cambridge's science based "Centre for Neuroscience In Education" (http://www.cne.psychol.cam.ac.uk/) to Johns-Hopkins School of Education's "Neuro Education Initiative"( http://education.jhu.edu/nei/) have been formed with similar mission statements.
The ideas behind these programs and this field are innovative and logical. The goal of scientific research in Neuroscience is to better understand how the brain works. The goal of education is to help the brain work to its best potential. Combined, these fields can provide groundbreaking ideas to change and improve how kids learn. In the US, many people believe that the public education system is failing kids, thereby lowering the prospects for this country's future. Between budget cuts and outmoded and unsuccessful teaching methods, people are calling for reform. But one central question is: how should we reform and what direction should it take? Neuro-education has the potential to provide the evidence on the science end and the experience on the educators end to form and shape education reform.
So, what is necessary to make this happen? First of all, like everything involved in education, it needs more funding. From the university to the federal government level, funding must be provided in order to promote new research, to integrate findings from multiple fields, and to implement new ideas into the classroom. Currently, less than .5% of all educational funding goes to research. The prospects of this changing in the current economic climate, where schools are struggling just to buy books for the classroom and keep class sizes at a reasonable level, seems slim.
Secondly, and perhaps most importantly, the lines of communication need to be opened between researchers in scientific fields and the people who are directly involved in the education of kids. This means that research findings must be presented in forms that are accessible to busy parents and teachers. Already, Neuroscience has developed an extensive body of knowledge about areas of high importance to education. The effects of sleep, stress, exercise and musical training on memory retrieval and learning consolidation are already well understood. Our country and public education system must find a way to get these finding to educators so that they may be translated into real practice.
In order to give kids the best prospects for their futures, and thereby, the best prospects for our country, the ultimate goal of education should be to inspire kids and imbue in them a sense of curiosity, creativity and competition. This combination between a scientific understanding of the brain and educational reform has a real and exciting potential to make a difference in the futures of our kids and our country.

Main Article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627310006380
Posted by      Megan M. at 10:18 AM MDT
displaying most recent comments (3 ommitted) | Comments (6)
  Megan Morgenthaler  says:
So, are you suggesting rewriting textbooks, or not using them at all? If "overhauling" means reworking and rewriting, I don't see how this would inspire the kids who are already uninterested to read them.
Posted on Sun, 23 Oct 2011 4:48 PM MDT by Megan M.
  Christina Uhlir  says:
Reworking in light of recent research about the layout of textbooks. Apparently textbooks (and this can include college textbooks) are a little too distracting because of all the pictures incorporated in them that simply take away from the message the text is trying to convey. For instance, if you have a page with a ton of text with a couple pictures added in on the sides which are referred to by the text, the students are more likely to just fixate on the pictures and forget what they were learning from the text.
Posted on Sun, 23 Oct 2011 5:17 PM MDT by Christina U.
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August 1, 2011

Better learning based on animal learning!


How many of us have gone through at least 12 years of education if not more in order to get a basic understanding of our future and to be able to carry on to the next portion of our life? Education is a very important aspect of life and as society progresses so does the demand for better education.

In order to understand how neuroscience can help with education a basic understanding of the brain must be used as a foundation. It is important to know that scientists have already found the basic size of the brain (including the average amount of nerve cells that make up the brain) as well as the makeup of a nerve cell. These findings are clearly important in order to truly understand how the brain is functioning and therefore what is actually occurring in the brain while learning is taking place. For now I want to step away from such things because it isn't the main focus of this article. In the article Neuroscience and Education: What can brain science contribute to teaching and learning? By John Hall the idea of neuroscience is used in order to determine if education and learning can be studied in a new way allowing education to increase.

As Hall explains there are three different areas of study that are involved in Neuroscience as explained below.
1) Where scientists are concerned with the inner most mechanisms of the brain, in which they look at the structure organization and the development of the brain.
2) Known as the 'black box' level in which scientists will look at the behavioral impact of input that will be applied in specific contexts.
3) Scientists will look at the application of knowledge about human behavior, this is used in order to help with learning and teaching.

The hope is that scientists will be able to bridge the gap between all three levels in order to help make advances in teaching as well how kids are able to learn based on the findings in the first level of study (the development/organization of the brain).
Some methodological and practical difficulties that Hall expresses within his article come from a report from OECD in which the difficulty of forming these connections that scientists are seeking is examined.

Current research methods in cognitive neuroscience
necessarily limit the types of questions that are addressed.
For example, questions such as 'How do individuals learn to
recognise written words?' are more tractable than 'How do
individuals compare the themes of different stories?'. This is
because the first question leads to studies where the stimuli
and responses can be easily controlled and contrasted with
another task. As such, it becomes understandable in reference
to known cognitive models. The second question involves too
many factors that cannot be successfully separated during
experimental testing. For this reason, the type of educational
tasks favoured by society will remain more complex than the
ones that might suit cognitive neuroscience.
(OECD, 2002)

One of the mains concerns that arise with the use of neuroscience is the basic from of studying the brain. It seems like common sense that humans think, learn, behave and process things differently than say a rodent. So it therefore becomes a concern for most that time and money are being spent on the study of other animals when it is evident that humans are in a completely different league. A common problem in educations is seen in the distress of the 'children' (assuming we are speaking of education at a younger state), such as when a child experiences a loss in the immediate family, or if parents' divorce or even if the child undergoes some other form of traumatic experience. As most people know the child's learning does suffer due to the experience. I don't know about most people but I don't often seen cats undergoing intense education to even have it be impacted by the loss of family, or for that matter one doesn't often seen their cat learn at a slower pace because it no longer has its mother (since it is a common practice for animals to be separated from its parents). Now to bring this back to the main point, how much can be learned from neuroscience testing on animals when clearly they have a very different way or living as well as learning and don't often experience the same 'emotions' that humans do.

Another common issue in which Hall addresses is that it is difficult to make generalization's in order to form a concrete hypothesis in order to apply neuroscience to learning.
Now, making a jump to leaning it has be found that the brain will continue to change as a result of learning (due to environmental changes) which is known as Plasticity, is most commonly seen in early years however it is not localized to this time. Thus it goes back to an old saying "it's never too late to learn" and therefore rules out the idea that "old dogs can never learn new tricks". Hall does however explain that recent studies have concluded that there are certain times within one's life that make learning certain things easier (ie playing an instrument or learning a new language are easier to learn when under the age of 13). Another aspect to learning that has been developed not only in animals but also that human's experience every day that learning new things is a "use it or lose it" thing. Have you ever wondered why you never forget how to talk, walk, eat, write or do our basic day to day activities, well that's it right there we don't forget because we do it every day, however you may forget how to do calculus or historical facts because you never use it once you are finished with that class.

Although Hall explains all these findings very well it seems questionable to from a meaningful study in order to connect all the factors that lie within learning to how the brain functions for these ideas. How is it possible that a scientist can look at how one human learns certain things and compare it to another when all the outside factors are completely different. Although neuroscience is a great idea on paper and is helping to understand so many things about humans it doesn't seem like a realistic practice to cross over into education. Neuroscience is such a new area of science in relation to other areas and since the human brain is such a complex unit it doesn't seem like it can be used to help people with learning anytime soon. I believe that although neuroscience will make ground breaking discoveries it wont be able to truly change the way we learn or better the education system because it is such a complex field that has too many factors for scans and neuro-imaging to truly understand.




Main Article: http://www.pre-online.co.uk/feature_pdfs/spotlight92.pdf
Posted by      Cherie T. at 12:21 AM MDT

July 31, 2011

Subjective Diagnosis


As the teacher speaks in front of the class, the majority of the students are attentive and taking notes. But there is one student in the classroom looking out the window daydreaming about being outside and able to run around, free, not trapped in his chair. He has attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD). More and more students are being diagnosed with this disorder. Why? Does it have to do with our genes, the environment? Is this just a reflection on our society always needing an answer and diagnosis for why we are different or is it the doctors wanting more money?

Currently the only way to diagnose this disorder is through a series of physiological tests and accounts from your teachers and parents. These methods are very subjective and may be leading to over diagnosis of children and overmedicating (2). These students may just need to learn discipline and learn how to motivate themselves to sit in a classroom and listen to a lecture or study for an exam. Just like many other psychological disorders the most logical answer to this is to study the differences between the brain structures of those with ADHD and those without.

In a recent study (1), the researchers were after the answer to see if there is a significant difference in the adolescent brain with ADHD with and without medication and without ADHD. The researchers wanted to determine if using an MRI of a child's brain would lead to better diagnosis of ADHD. The researchers studied the participants for ten years and took a total of four MRI's for each child. The researchers concluded that there is a significant difference in brain volume and specifically the white matter and the caudate nucleus. These two differences were seen to be developed at a young age due to genetics or environment and the growth of the brain paralleled the control participants. This means that as a child you have ADHD and do not generally develop it later in life.

According to the results even though there are differences in the anatomical brain structure, this still is not a clear answer to whether or not an MRI will be able to diagnose anyone with ADHD any time soon. The limitations to the study are the participants themselves. They are unable to keep still for the MRI and many of the images had to be thrown out because of movement. Also the lack of twin and sibling studies in the topic cause us to not be able to determine how much of the differences are die to environmental or genetic influences or if it is merely a correlation.

Similarly to other imaging discussions about the validity of the images and what they tell us we are unable to definitively say. At this point much more research needs to be done on the topic of ADHD and how brain imaging can enhance one's ability to be diagnosed with ADHD and allow the subjective tests to be replaced by a more concrete method of diagnosis.

1. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/288/14/1740.full.pdf+html
2. http://www.hs-zigr.de/~wirsing/ASH%20Sozialmedizin09/ABPapersPDF/ADHD1%20Kopie.pdf
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Look Ma, No Hands


Have you ever wondered what it would be like to actually control something, using just the power of thought? Of course you have! The best thing is, scientists are putting this awesome Sci-Fi superpower to the test. With the help of neroscientist Christof Koch of Caltech and neurosurgeon Itzhak Fried of UCLA one can start controlling a computer based on harnessing the power of a certain neuron in the human brain.

This neuron functions similarly to how a computer functions allowing it to "recognize people, landmarks, and objects." These scientists have been working with persons diagnosed with epilepsy and with the help of Moran Cerf (a postdoctoral fellow) they have found that individuals have been able to "consciously control the firing of these single neurons...and in doing so manipulate the behavior of an image on a computer screen."

It is already amazing what the brain can do, but the truly remarkable thing is that there is so much more to it that we don't know. This is truly the beginning of the brain era where we will start to unravel and discover more than we ever have about the human race. Unlocking the secrets of our full potential is on the horizon as we dig deeper for an understanding of how our brain functions.

These scientists were able to find one neuron amongst billions, and this neuron can be controlled by the patient and turned into a controller for a computer. In around 70 percent of the trials the subjects were successful in separating two images on a screen by focusing on the target image and fading out the "distractor" image. This breakthrough is so fascinating it is almost to good to be true, but the study stands and the patients felt the task to be "incredibly fun as they started to feel that they control things in the environment purely with their thought."

So surely these types of studies should be continued in a lab setting so that it can be tweaked and perfected. The discovery of this neuron can be used for a greater purpose than the sole entertainment of bringing out our childhood fantasies of controlling things with our minds; but how could it not be one of the coolest things ever? Yes, it can be used to play a new type of videogame, but it can also be expanded and used as a built-in controller for any electronic devise that can be synced to your brain. One may no longer need the use of a keyboard as they write an article, just by thinking. They are not at all shocked to see their thoughts written out on the screen in front of them with no more of an effort than to will it.

Though this is just the baby stage of what can one day be a great and dependent part of everyday life the questions of the consequences are always lingering. What the brain fully has to offer once mixed with technology is still unknown. The fact of the matter is, are we ready for this great responsibility as a race?


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101027133158.htm
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Neurotherapeutics: Helpful or Harmful?


Who wouldn't want to take a pill that would enhance their mental capabilities? Instead of studying for hours and hours, how much more enjoyable would it be if you took a pill, enhanced your memory making capabilities and thus only had to spend an hour or two studying for that big cumulative exam? These days research and scientific developments have allowed the range of pharmaceuticals to alter mood, cognition and other cognitive skills such as memory to go beyond what we previously would have believed to be to be impossible. Drugs that have been developed to treat some of the most heinous diseases now bring the promise of, not only treating illness, but enhancing performance. Today, the debate between treatment and enhancement has already begun to be a hot button topic in neuroscience.

According to an article by Paul Root Wolpe, there are two fundamental questions that we must address pertaining to this issue. First, "what do terms such as average or normal functioning or even disease and enhancement mean when we can improve functioning across the entire range of human capability?" Second, "should we encourage or discourage people to ingest pharmaceuticals to enhance behaviors, skills and traits? What are the social implications of using drugs or other neurotechnologies to micromanage mood, improve memory, to maintain attentiveness or improve sexuality?"

Enhancement has been defined by medicine and its implications. Medicine treats disease but what it does not treat is enhancement. So if we begin allowing or encouraging people to take pharmaceuticals in order to enhance their well-being, where do we draw the line? A good example used in this article is the use of Prozac and other anti-depressant drugs. If drugs like Prozac can increase a user's mood, what emotional state then becomes normal? If it becomes normal for everyone to take mood enhancing drugs, than does being in a sad state become taboo? Furthermore, if more people start taking drugs like Prozac, will insurance companies still cover these sorts of drugs? Insurance companies pay for treatments and injurious events, but if everyone is using a drug does this drug then become a commonality such as the use of Advil, which is not covered by insurance companies?

As humans, we have always been able to find techniques to enhance our performance and general functioning. We go to school, take vitamins, and go through training programs. But is it acceptable to bypass all of these "external" strategies and directly alter our brains? Sure, the drugs we have currently developed may help us increase cognitive function but what about the long term side effects? Take the use of drugs that are supposed to treat disabilities like ADD and ADHD. Drugs like Adderall and Ritalin prescribed for attention deficit disorder are becoming more and more popular among students. These drugs boost cognitive function and enable the user to study for hours with full concentration without getting tired or distracted. But at what cost? Long term use of cognitive enhancers like Ritalin cause serious side effects such as severe sleep deprivation and heart problems. More troubling, however, is that these drugs can be highly addictive. Users can get to the point where what we now define as "normal" cognitive function is unachievable without the use of cognitive enhancers. So if drugs like Adderall can have these results, can our pharmaceutical strategies backfire on us and destroy the delicate balance in our brains?

On the other hand, think about a world where we have not only found a cure for degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, but where people in general have a higher standard of living because our brains are functioning at the fullest extent! It's a fine line between helpful and hurtful when it comes to our emerging neurotechnologies and pharmaceuticals.

For more information on this debate check out the article by Paul Root Wolpe at: http://www.chem.arizona.edu/courseweb/081/CHEM4361/reading_pdfs/guest_lecturers/treatment_enhancement.pdf
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Cosmetic Neuro-tinkering


Altering your body for aesthetic reasons has become social norm in society. What if you could alter your brain functions to improve motor skills, attention, learning, and mood, would you do it? Advances in neuropharmacology are beginning to progress to the point that they are able to use drugs to enhance these abilities. This emerging technology is becoming known as cosmetic neurology.

In an article entitled, "Cosmetic Neuorlogy: The Controversy Over Enhancing Movement, Mentation and Mood," Anjan Chatterjee MD outlines three general categories, motor systems, attention/learning/memory, and mood, that could have a prospect for better bodies and mind.

Chatterjee says that all three of these areas of improvement already have neuophamagological drugs that can improve them. For example, Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) can be given to men over 60 to increase muscle mass, decrease body fat, and improve skin. This in turn improves the quality of life of these people? In addition to IGFs, there are drugs that can improve plasticity, block receptors that cause depression, and decrease unpleasant memories.

Unfortunately, any time you wish to alter the brain there are several ethical dilemmas. In this case safety, individuality, distribution and coercion become the prominent issues.

Safety is a main concern with any form of drug treatment. In disease, a person weights the risks against the potential benefits. Which is why people with terminal cancer are willing to endure toxic chemotherapies to prolong life. Where as in a healthy state any risk is harder to accept because the alternative is "normal" health (Chatterjee 2004). This is where ethics plays in. Is it ethical to treat someone with something that does not save them for something else? Some people think it is, as long as that person is equipped with enough information about the potential side effect. But then again where did the information come from and did the person use it?

Another issue in this cause is individuality; Chatterjee says that a major concern is that chemically changing the brain threatens to eliminate personhood. This then leads into a more ethical issue of if tinkering with brain chemistry is going to threaten what it means to be human?

As in most discussions, who gets them becomes an important question to ask. Because these mind-altering drugs are expensive it is unlikely that the government or insurance companies are going to pay. Does that mean that the rich prevail again? Then we have to ask ourselves? what happens when the rich get stronger, smarter, and sweeter than "normal" people? A critical ethical issue when talking about new drugs is distribution.

Finally, we must look at how choices can evolve into forces of coercion (Chatterjee 2004). One form of this is the common feeling that you want to be better or at least maintain your position in society. As people become smarter, fast, and stronger, pressures increase and smaller groups of people will be competing for larger prizes. Imagine what you could do if you could work 100 hours a week without becoming tired! Another issue is demand for superior performance. Pilots taking donepezil preformed better in emergencies than those on a placebo. Should that then mean that all pilots should take it, or that people will pay more for flights where their pilot takes it?

It does not take much imagination to see how the media will advertise for "better brains." We must look follow these topics and developments. Up until now, I did not realize the extent of these mind-altering substances. Did you?
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July 30, 2011

Reading Your Mind


Have you ever wondered what the world will be like when someone can read your mind? If so, maybe you should pay attention to this paper. As you well know, technology is changing in such a rapid pace, you can?t buy a computer without a newer one coming out before you even get it home. The same goes for neuroscience.

There is a lot going on in the neuroscience community right now. One major area is the mapping of minds and memories. Henry T. Greely outlines these studies in a paper entitled Neuroethics: The Neuroscience Revolution, Ethics, and the Law. In the paper, Greely discusses the various ways in which mind mapping will affect the world. Though currently mapping is being used to advance the way in which doctors predict diseases in patients, mapping can lead to predicting behaviors in the future. This will be revolutionary to many areas. As Greely points out, the way criminals are convicted, businesses are run, and how students are tested will all be affected by mind mapping.

On a criminal level, the author does an outstanding job describing the history of predictive measures and the law; Lie detection being the most prominent. In comparison to future techniques, he makes the polygraph tests look primitive and crude. It would have strengthened the paper if more methods were introduced in mapping and imaging. Greely seems to focus on the history and the implications of these methods,. Additionally, he makes the material accessible to the average person without frightening them into thinking the future is the plot of the movie ?The Minority Report?. The article offers possible ways that crimes will be predicted in people, as well as how trials will be held regarding mind and memory mapping.

In schools, long gone will be major tests like the SAT and the MCAT. Brain imaging will go a long way into measuring the aptitude of a student?s mind without having to put a pencil to paper. These methods sound to be decades away, but Greely describes them in a realistic manner, making the author?s take on the future more believable.

Finally, Greely points out that with any new area of study, someone is going to try to make money off of it. These prediction methods are a dream for marketers who may be able to predict the exact reaction a product will get, or the best way to appeal to a specific market. Again, this future seems very possible in the way that Greely describes. I have no doubts that the in the creation of new prediction methods, new ways to buy and sell will emerge in the United States and the rest of the world.
After finishing reading this article, as a prospective neuroscientist I was amazed at all of the possibilities that I haven?t even considered that are covered. As a citizen I was just as amazed. With Greely?s prediction of the way that prediction will affect the world, I strongly believe that the world will change as long as neuroscience advances. I encourage everyone to follow these developments as they will certainly be a part of our world. Maybe sooner than we think.
Posted by      Anthony F. at 12:40 PM MDT

July 29, 2011

Excuse me. Are you a neuroscientist?


Please talk to me...
I am a parent. What can neuroscience tell me about multisensory learning? Can neuroscience tell me how to enrich my child's environment so their brain will develop properly?

Please talk to me...
I am a high school teacher. I'm having a hard time engaging the teens in my classroom. Can neuroscience help me to develop lessons that keep them engaged? Can neuroscience help me to expand their executive judgment capabilities so they realize why school is so important?

Please talk to me...
I am a school principal. The parents at my school think that our school day starts too early. The school board wants to make budget cuts that will eliminate gym class and music class. Can neuroscience provide evidence on how sleep, music and physical education affect learning?

A new discipline, Neuro-Education, is asking neuroscientists and educators to open up a dialogue and to initiate research aimed at finding the best ways to educate our children. This invitation stretches globally from the U.S. to Japan. Neuroscientists already have an abundance of information on the mechanisms of learning and memory that when shared with educators, may bring about more effective evidence-based education practices for children. For example, neuroscientists know testing helps to reinforce learning. Neuroscientists also know that a good night's sleep enhances memory and that too much stress compromises memory and learning. Teachers and neuroscientist can certainly find some common ground when it comes to the retrieval of memories and the consolidation of learning.

The September 9, 2010 edition of Neuron highlights a few of the aspects of this new and exciting avenue for the advocacy of neuroscience. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627310006380) However, this new endeavor is not without barriers. You guessed it! MONEY! According to this article "Less than one-half of one percent of the federal education budget is spent on research." This is unsatisfactory!

Educators and parents are at risk of teaching and parenting based on miss information. Myths like the belief that people are either 'right-brained' or 'left-brained' is an oversimplification of the way brain hemispheres work and it needs to be debunked. 'Critical periods' in development also run the risk of being oversimplified leading parents to feel guilty if they feel they've missed a window of opportunity. Research and open communication is needed to ensure that information is not only correct but that the information is also correctly understood.

Money is not the only barrier to linking neuroscience and education. Developing a common language and consistency in terminology used also needs to be developed. It is not easy to translate what is learned in the lab into information that the mainstream population can use and understand. And, information gained in the lab is not always immediately ready for practical application.

I find Neuro-Education both fascinating and challenging. As I prepare for graduate school, where I will study Occupational Therapy (OT), I find myself trying to take what I am learning about neuroscience and figure out where the practical applications might be. Are you interested in a dialogue about practical applications to understanding the brain? It is my opinion those in multidisciplinary fields, such as OT or psychology, might be able to help bridge the gap and build a link between neuroscientists and educators.
Posted by      Maria B. at 9:01 AM MDT
  ankit saini  says:
Just try to know online functions and some quick relevent ways by which we math games have authority to know about it quickly. Thanks a lot
Posted on Tue, 30 Jul 2019 12:16 AM MDT by ankit s.




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